Question: What Causes Theophylline Toxicity?

What is the antidote for theophylline?

Multidose activated charcoal (MDAC) enhances elimination of theophylline.

It is important to control nausea and vomiting in order to perform MDAC treatment..

Is theophylline still prescribed?

Theophylline is still one of the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worldwide, because it is inexpensive and widely available.

Does theophylline cause weight loss?

Common side effects of Theo-24 include mild nausea, loss of appetite, stomach pain, diarrhea, upset stomach, weight loss, restlessness, tremor, sleep problems (insomnia), headache, lightheadedness, dizziness, sweating, restlessness, nervousness, or irritability.

What medications can increase the risk of theophylline toxicity?

Causes of chronic theophylline toxicity include the following: Drug interactions (eg, ethanol [ETOH], cimetidine, oral contraceptives, allopurinol, macrolide antibiotics, quinolone antibiotics) Liver disease. Congestive heart failure.

How long does theophylline stay in your system?

Because the drug half-life of theophylline is relatively short (eight hours in non-smoking adults), you need to take it on a strict daily dose to maintain optimal blood concentrations. This means taking it at the prescribed time, whether that be every six, eight, 12, or 24 hours.

What is normal theophylline level?

The therapeutic concentration for theophylline, when used as a bronchodilator to treat asthma, is generally considered to be 5–15 mcg/mL (28-83 micromol/L) for adults, 5–10 mcg/mL (28–55 micromol/L) for children and neonates. Levels greater than 20 mcg/mL (111 micromol/L) are considered toxic.

Does theophylline increase heart rate?

Heart rate was higher in the theophylline group than in the control group. Both pacemaker therapy and theophylline improved symptom scores after 3 months of treatment; however, a similar improvement was observed in the control group.

Does theophylline raise blood sugar?

high blood sugar –increased thirst, increased urination, dry mouth, fruity breath odor.

What are the signs and symptoms of theophylline toxicity?

Mechanism of toxicityNervousness.Insomnia.Central respiratory stimulation.Nausea.Vomiting.Tremors.Hyperesthesia.Focal and generalized seizures that progress to status epilepticus in 25%More items…•

What causes high theophylline levels?

Decreased theophylline clearance and the resulting higher-than-predicted serum levels of the drug are caused by pneumonia; heart failure; infections; influenza vaccination; liver disease; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); obesity; a high-carbohydrate, low-protein diet; high levels of dietary methylxanthines …

What is the side effect of theophylline?

Nausea/vomiting, stomach/abdominal pain, headache, trouble sleeping, diarrhea, irritability, restlessness, nervousness, shaking, or increased urination may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

What happens when you stop taking theophylline?

“If you suddenly stop taking theophylline, your asthma symptoms may return, which could lead to a potentially fatal asthma attack.”

How often should theophylline levels be checked?

Question: How often should a theophylline level be taken? Answer: In general, a level should be checked 1-2 times a year after a person is regulated. Of course, a person with variable levels should have his levels checked more often. If trouble breathing increases or side effects appear, then a level should be checked.

What does theophylline do to the body?

Theophylline is used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases. It relaxes and opens air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe.

What foods contain theophylline?

Theophylline is found in black tea and to a lesser extent in green coffee, cocoa cotyledon and dried mate.

Is there a substitute for theophylline?

Abstract: Doxofylline, which differs from theophylline in containing the dioxalane group at position 7, has comparable efficacy to theophylline in the treatment of respiratory diseases, but with an improved tolerability profile and a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio.

Has theophylline been discontinued?

Reason for the Shortage Major has discontinued theophylline extended-release tablets. Teva has had theophylline extended-release tablets temporarily unavailable for several years. Theophylline 24-hour extended-release presentations are available from Mylan, Rhodes, and Endo Pharmaceuticals.

How quickly does theophylline work?

This medication may be used alone or with an inhaled bronchodilator. How fast does this medication work? This medication works within 30 minutes.